There are vast gaps between the acquired and actual output of produce, which suffers due to a lack of appropriate technology, use of inputs at improper times, unavailability of water and land use and inadequate education about insect pest control, which not only negatively affects the produce but also significantly reduces the amount of produce. Farmers mainly use synthetic chemicals for the control of insect pests, but these are used unwisely. To emphasize the major shortfalls and actual performance of major field crops, this study investigated the relationship between agricultural GDP and the output of major crops, including wheat, rice, sugarcane, maize and cotton, in Pakistan over a period of 65 years from to Time series data were collected from the Economic Survey of Pakistan various publications.
In the absence of other pollutionseawater would not be harmful to drink except that it is much too saline; [e] similarly, it cannot be used for irrigating most plants without being desalinated.
For scientific and technical purposes, a standardized form of artificial seawater is often used.
Variations in salinity are caused by many factors: Sea temperature chiefly depends on the amount of solar radiation it absorbs. These temperature differences contribute to the continuous circulation of water through the sea.
Warm surface currents cool as they move away from the tropics; as the water becomes denser, it sinks. The cold water in the deep sea moves back towards the equator before welling up again to the surface.
These break into small pieces and coalesce into flat discs that form a thick suspension known as frazil. In calm conditions, frazil will freeze into a thin, flat sheet called nilaswhich thickens as new ice forms in the sea beneath it. In turbulent waters, frazil instead join together into larger flat discs known as "pancakes".
These slide over and under one another to form floes. During these processes, salt water and air are trapped amid the ice. Of the light that reaches the surface of the sea, much of it is reflected at the surface and its red wavelengths are absorbed in the top few meters.
The amount of oxygen present in seawater depends primarily upon its temperature and the photosynthetic organisms living in it, particularly algaephytoplanktonand plants such as seagrass.
During the day, their photosynthetic activity produces oxygen, which dissolves into the seawater and is used by marine animals. Wind wave Mean wave heightfrom 0 m light violet to 6 m white.
Note the large swells in the southern oceans. Movement of fluid parcels as waves pass. Ocean surface waves are propagating oscillations caused by the drag and friction from air moving across the surface of the water. This friction transfers energy and forms surface waves in the water more or less in the direction of the wind.
The top of a wave is known as its crest and its foot as its trough ; the distance between two crests is the wavelength. These waves are mechanical: The energy is passed along with the wave at a much greater speed than the motion of the water itself.
The sea state of the ocean is determined by the size of these waves, which—on the open ocean —depends upon the wind speed and the fetchthe distance over which the wind blows upon the water.
The smallest waves are called ripplesstrongly affected by surface tension. These waves reach their maximum height when the rate at which they are traveling nearly matches the speed of the wind. As the wind drops, the waves remain as swell and, over time, they naturally separate [f] into long, powerful waves with a common direction and wavelength.
These swells can travel over large distances—even half the globe—and originate particularly often from the Roaring Forties of the Southern Hemisphere where the wind blows continuously. As waves approach land and move into shallow waterthey change their behavior.
If approaching at an angle, waves may bend refraction or wrap rocks and headlands diffraction. When the wave reaches a point where its deepest oscillations of the water contact the seabedthey begin to slow down. An estimated 8, Thais were killed;other people died around the Indian Ocean.
Tsunami A tsunami is an unusual form of wave caused by a sudden and powerful event such as an underwater earthquake or landslidea meteorite impacta volcanic eruptionor a collapse of land into the sea.
These events can temporarily lift or lower the surface of the sea in the affected area, usually by a few feet. The potential energy of the displaced seawater is turned into kinetic energy, creating a shallow wave radiating outwards at a velocity proportional to the square root of the depth of the water.
Tsunamis, therefore, travel much faster in the open ocean than on a continental shelf. The energy of the wave is dissipated only gradually but is spread out over the wave front. As the wave radiates away from the source, the front gets longer and the average energy reduces, so distant shores will generally be hit by weaker waves.
However, as the speed of the wave is controlled by the water depth, it does not travel at the same speed in all directions and this affects the direction of the wave front.Nepal had attracted modest FDI in niche sectors such as tourism, herbal products, mineral deposits (lime stone), and light manufacturing apparel; hydro power and that it had positive impacts on exports, particularly garments.
Analysing the Indus Basin: the Basis of India-Pakistan Water Conflict Research Paper Introduction: Water as we understand is crucial for life and survival.
Unfortunately sharing and managing this finite resource in South Asia has been a problem of great concern. International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) is an open access online peer reviewed international journal that publishes research. Rainfall–runoff–inundation analysis of the Pakistan ﬂood in the Kabul River basin aseriesofridgesandtroughsstretchingfromWestern Europe to Eastern China.
In the history of art, prehistoric art is all art produced in preliterate, prehistorical cultures beginning somewhere in very late geological history, and generally continuing until that culture either develops writing or other methods of record-keeping, or makes significant contact with another culture that has, and that makes some record of major historical .
The Indus Waters Treaty case study is not chosen by chance and its value as a test case for assessing the analytic quality of water security and conﬂict theories should be understood in the context.