However, in Septemberthe court case of Brown v. Their activity today centers on collective bargaining over wages, benefits, and working conditions for their membership, and on representing their members in disputes with management over violations of contract provisions. Larger unions also typically engage in lobbying activities and electioneering at the state and federal level. Both advocate policies and legislation on behalf of workers in the United States and Canada, and take an active role in politics.
Starting in the s, Bengali nationalists used the term in political rallies in East Pakistan. The term Bangla is a major name for both the Bengal region and the Bengali language. The term Vangaladesa is found in 11th-century South Indian records.
The Portuguese referred to the region as Bengala in the 16th century. History of Bangladesh Early and medieval periods Seal of the King Shashankawho created the first separate political entity in Bengalcalled the Gauda Kingdom Stone Age tools found in Bangladesh indicate human habitation for over 20, years,  and remnants of Copper Age settlements date back 4, years.
By the 11th century people lived in systemically-aligned housing, buried their dead, and manufactured copper ornaments and black and red pottery. The early Iron Age saw the development of metal weaponry, coinageagriculture and irrigation.
These states had well-developed currencies, banking, shipping, architecture and art, and the ancient universities of Bikrampur and Mainamati hosted scholars and students from other parts of Asia. Xuanzang of China was a noted scholar who resided at the Somapura Mahavihara the largest monastery in ancient Indiaand Atisa traveled from Bengal to Tibet to preach Buddhism.
The earliest form of the Bengali language began to the emerge during the eighth century. The Islamic conquest of Bengal began with the invasion by Bakhtiar Khilji ; after annexing Bengal to the Delhi SultanateKhilji waged a military campaign in Tibet.
Bengal was ruled by the Delhi Sultanate for a century by governors from the MamlukBalban and Tughluq dynasties. During the 14th century, an independent Bengal Sultanate was established by rebel governors. The sultanate's ruling houses included the Ilyas ShahiJalaluddin Muhammad ShahHussain ShahiSuri and Karrani dynastiesand the era saw the introduction of a distinct mosque architecture  and the tangka currency.
The Arakan region was brought under Bengali hegemony. During the late 16th century, the Baro-Bhuyan a confederation of Muslim and Hindu aristocrats ruled eastern Bengal; its leader was the Mansad-e-Ala,  a title held by Isa Khan and his son Musa Khan.
The Khan dynasty are considered local heroes for resisting North Indian invasions with their river navies.
During the reign of Emperor Akbarthe Bengali agrarian calendar was reformed to facilitate tax collection. The Mughals established Dhaka as a fort city and commercial metropolis, and it was the capital of Mughal Bengal for 75 years.
Mughal Bengal attracted foreign traders for its muslin and silk goods, and the Armenians were a notable merchant community. A Portuguese settlement in Chittagong flourished in the southeast, and a Dutch settlement in Rajshahi existed in the north.
During the 18th century, the Nawabs of Bengal became the region's de facto rulers. The Nawabs forged alliances with European colonial companies, which made the region relatively prosperous early in the century.
The Bengali Muslim population was a product of conversion and religious evolution,  and their pre-Islamic beliefs included elements of Buddhism and Hinduism. The construction of mosques, Islamic academies madrasas and Sufi monasteries khanqahs facilitated conversion, and Islamic cosmology played a significant role in developing Bengali Muslim society.
Scholars have theorized that Bengalis were attracted to Islam by its egalitarian social order, which contrasted with the Hindu caste system. Syncretic cults, such as the Baul movement, emerged on the fringes of Bengali Muslim society. The Persianate culture was significant in Bengal, where cities like Sonargaon became the easternmost centers of Persian influence.
The company formed the Presidency of Fort Williamwhich administered the region until A notable aspect of company rule was the Permanent Settlementwhich established the feudal zamindari system.
A number of famines, including the great Bengal famine ofoccurred under company rule. Several rebellions broke out during the early 19th century including one led by Titumirbut British rule displaced the Muslim ruling class.
A conservative Islamic cleric, Haji Shariatullahsought to overthrow the British by propagating Islamic revivalism. Several towns in Bangladesh participated in the Indian Mutiny and pledged allegiance to the last Mughal emperor, Bahadur Shah Zafarwho was later exiled to neighboring Burma.
Prime Ministers of Bengal A. Fazlul HuqKhawaja Nazimuddin and H. Suhrawardy The challenge posed to company rule by the failed Indian Mutiny led to the creation of the British Indian Empire as a crown colonyand the first railway was built in During the late 19th century, novelists, social reformers and feminists emerged from Muslim Bengali society.
Electricity and municipal water systems were introduced in the s; cinemas opened in many towns during the early 20th century. East Bengal's plantation economy was important to the British Empire, particularly its jute and tea.1 Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises in Bangladesh: Are They Scaling Up?
Dr Khondaker Golam Moazzem. In the Sixth Five Year Plan (6th FYP) acceleration of GDP growth (from per cent in FY to per cent in FY) has been targeted through excelling the . Published: Thu, 04 May Chapter Introduction Background of the report. There is no chance to deny the fact that Bangladesh needs a sustained level of growth of small and medium enterprises (SMEs) in order to reduce poverty.
The Bangladesh Rating Agency Limited (BDRAL), a subsidiary of Dun & Bradstreet South Asia Middle East Ltd., is the pioneer in rating the SME sectors in iridis-photo-restoration.com are the power house of the developing economy of Bangladesh and so to turn Bangladesh into a middle-income nation, the SME sector is the only alternative which can help the country to achieve the feat.
Employment is a relationship between two parties, usually based on a contract where work is paid for, where one party, which may be a corporation, for profit, not-for-profit organization, co-operative or other entity is the employer and the other is the employee. Employees work in return for payment, which may be in the form of an hourly wage, by piecework or an annual salary, depending on the.
Thus no elaborate argument is needed to establish the case of promoting micro as well as small and medium enterprises as the most cost-effective and advisable means of providing employment and injecting dynamism into industrial growth. Jobs Opportunities and Business Support (JOBs) Programme: Growth potentials of Small and Medium Enterprises: A Review of Eight Sub-Sectors in Bangladesh, A Report prepared by Dr.
Zaid Bakht, BIDS, for JOBS Sub-sector Study,