People make attributions in order to understand their experiences. Attributions strongly influence the way people interact with others. Types of Attributions Researchers classify attributions along two dimensions:
Bandwagon effect — the tendency to do or believe things because many other people do or believe the same. Related to groupthinkcrowd psychologyherd behaviourand manias. Congruence bias — the tendency to test hypotheses exclusively through direct testing, in contrast to tests of possible alternative hypotheses.
Contrast effect — the enhancement or diminishment of a weight or other measurement when compared with recently observed contrasting object.
Endowment effect — "the fact that people often demand much more to Social biases up an object than they would be willing to pay to acquire it". Extreme aversion — most people will go to great lengths to avoid extremes.
People are more likely to choose an option if it is the intermediate choice. Focusing effect — prediction bias occurring when people place too much importance on one aspect of an event; causes error in accurately predicting the utility of a future outcome.
Framing — drawing different conclusions from the same information, depending on how that information is presented. Hyperbolic discounting — the tendency for people to have a stronger preference for more immediate payoffs relative to later payoffs, the closer to the present both payoffs are.
Illusion of control — the tendency for human beings to believe they can control or at least influence outcomes that they clearly cannot. Impact bias — the tendency for people to overestimate the length or the intensity of the impact of future feeling states.
Information bias — the tendency to seek information even when it cannot affect action. Irrational escalation — the tendency to make irrational decisions based upon rational decisions in the past or to justify actions already taken.
Loss aversion — "the disutility of giving up an object is greater than the utility associated with acquiring it". Neglect of probability — the tendency to completely disregard probability when making a decision under uncertainty.
Mere exposure effect — the tendency for people to express undue liking for things merely because they are familiar with them. Obsequiousness bias — the tendency to systematically alter responses in the direction they perceive desired by the investigator. Omission bias — the tendency to judge harmful actions as worse, or less moralthan equally harmful omissions inactions.
Outcome bias — the tendency to judge a decision by its eventual outcome instead of based on the quality of the decision at the time it was made. Planning fallacy — the tendency to underestimate task-completion times.
Pseudocertainty effect — the tendency to make risk-averse choices if the expected outcome is positive, but make risk-seeking choices to avoid negative outcomes. Reactance — the urge to do the opposite of what someone wants you to do out of a need to resist a perceived attempt to constrain your freedom of choice.
Selective perception — the tendency for expectations to affect perception.
Status quo bias — the tendency for people to like things to stay relatively the same see also Loss aversion and Endowment effect. Unacceptability bias — questions that may embarrass or invade privacy are refused or evaded.
Unit bias — the tendency to want to finish a given unit of a task or an item with strong effects on the consumption of food in particular Von Restorff effect — the tendency for an item that "stands out like a sore thumb" to be more likely to be remembered than other items.
Zero-risk bias — the preference for reducing a small risk to zero over a greater reduction in a larger risk. It is relevant e. Biases in probability and belief[ edit ] Many of these biases are often studied for how they affect business and economic decisions and how they affect experimental research.
Ambiguity effect — the avoidance of options for which missing information makes the probability seem "unknown".
Anchoring — the tendency to rely too heavily, or "anchor," on a past reference or on one trait or piece of information when making decisions. Attentional bias — neglect of relevant data when making judgments of a correlation or association.In the digital age, information is more plentiful than ever, but parsing truth from the abundance of competing claims can be daunting.
Whether the subject is Ebola, vaccines or climate change, speculation and conspiracy theories compete with science for the public’s trust.
Cognitive biases influence how we think and can lead to errors in decisions and judgments. Learn the common ones, how they work, and their impact. How Cognitive Biases Influence How You Think and Act Social pressures, individual motivations, emotions, and limits on the mind's ability to process information can also contribute to .
In social science research, social desirability bias is a type of response bias that is the tendency of survey respondents to answer questions in a manner that will be viewed favorably by others. It can take the form of over-reporting "good behavior" or under-reporting "bad," or undesirable behavior.
A summary of Attribution in 's Social Psychology. Learn exactly what happened in this chapter, scene, or section of Social Psychology and what it means. Perfect for acing essays, tests, and quizzes, as well as for writing lesson plans. Some of the cognitive biases on this graphic from Samantha Lee and Shana Lebowitz at Business Insider may sound pretty familiar.
You’ve probably heard of the “placebo effect” and. Details on the Warshauer Law Social Biases in the Courtroom Scholarship including how to apply and what requirements those applying must meet in order to be eligible.